Japanese Onomatopoeia: The Definitive Guide (2023)

Japanese Onomatopoeia: The Definitive Guide (1)

words written byKristen Dexter•Art byAya Francisco

What are onomatopoeia? In their simplest form, onomatopoeia are words that represent sounds. In English, they're words like pop, meow, crackle, and whoosh. We add them to our spoken and written language to add something more substantial, more visceral. It's like adding color, flavor, or texture to what you're saying.

In Japanese, a language that many people have so inaccurately called "vague" in the past, onomatopoeia are there to fill that void. And not just in the ways we hear and see them in English as well as most Western European languages.

If you're past the beginner stages of learning Japanese you've probably used きる (to wake up), べる (to eat), and る (to sleep) more times than you can count. But there comes a time when you have to put down that textbook Japanese and throw in some flare. Lazily roll out of bed, gobble down some food, and sleep soundly.

Classification

There are thousands of onomatopoeia in Japanese. Here are 5 categories they can be broken up into:

  • Giseigo 擬声語 Animal and human sounds.
  • Giongo 擬音語 Actual sounds made by inanimate objects and nature.
  • Gitaigo 擬態語 Describe conditions and states.
  • Giyougo 擬容語 Describe movements and motions.
  • Gijougo 擬情語 Describe feelings.

If you know your kanji, the differences between them should be pretty easy to recognize if you do see them in the wild.

(Video) Learn 43 Japan Sounds in 5 Minutes: Japanese OFFICE Onomatopoeia

せい Voice
おん Sound/Noise
たい Condition/Appearance
よう Form/Looks
じょう Feelings/Emotions

Giseigo and giongo are just like onomatopoeia we have in English. The cow goes moo. The machine is whirring. They represent real sounds you can hear.

The last three describe what's called mimetic words, or ideophones. They describe or represent something that has no sound. The way you feel, the way you walk, and even your skin has an onomatopoeia to describe it. These mimetic words don't really exist in English, which makes mastering them difficult when learning Japanese. Let's take a look at each of these groups of words.

Giseigo 擬声語

These are sounds that humans and animals make. Some of them may sound very similar to what you learned growing up, and maybe some sound even closer to what you hear than what you write in your language.

Animal Japanese Sound English Sound
Bear がおー Roar
Bee ぶーん Buzz
Bird ちゅんちゅん Tweet
Cat にゃん Meow
Chicken こけこっこ Cluck
Cow もーもー Moo
Crow かーかー Caw
Dog わんわん Woof
Duck がーがー Quack
Fox こんこん ¯_(ツ)_/¯
Frog げろげろ Croak, Ribbit
Godzilla がおー Roar
Horse ひひいん Neigh
Monkey うきうき Oo oo aa aa
Mouse ちゅーちゅー Squeak
Owl ほーほー Hoo
Pig ぶーぶー Oink
Sheep めーめー Baa
Japanese English
がみがみ Being lectured or nagged by someone above you
あはは A cheerful, loud laugh
うわーん A child crying loudly
うぎゃー A surprised scream or shriek
うふふ Chuckling like you have a secret
ぺちゃくちゃ Chatting about frivolous things
ごにょごにょ Muttering so other people can't hear you
ぺらぺら Being able to speak a foreign language fluently
おほん Clearing your throat for attention
くすくす Laughing quietly, unable to hold it in

Giongo 擬音語

These are also real sounds. They're the ones you see used in manga and anime. They're the sound of the wind moving through the trees, the door slamming shut, and the phone ringing. Basically, any sound you hear that isn't coming out of the mouth of a person or animal falls under this category.

Japanese English
ごろごろ Thunder rumbling
ざーざー Lots of heavy rain pouring down
ぱたぱた Cloth lightly flapping in the wind
ぴゅーぴゅー Strong, continuous, and cold wintry winds
ばしゃっ Water scattering, splashing forcefully
こぽこぽ Water bubbling gently
めらめら Suddenly bursting into flames
さくさく Stepping on soft dirt or sand
ごろごろ A boulder or rocks tumbling down a hill
たたたた Running at full speed

Gitaigo 擬態語

The first of our mimetic set, these words describe conditions and states.

Japanese English
ぎらぎら A glint in your eyes
ほかほか A warm body or food
むしむし Too much warmth, unpleasantly hot
べとべと Sticky with sweat or blood
びしょびしょ Horribly soaked by a large amount of water
がたがた A road that isn't paved
でこぼこ Uneven ground
さんさん Lots of shining sunlight
ひんやり Feeling cool
じんわり Soaking slowly with sweat or tears

Giyougo 擬容語

These describe movements and motions, usually relating to walking or traveling from place to place.

Japanese English
うろうろ Wandering aimlessly
すたこら Fast paced, eager walking
のろのろ Proceeding at a snail's pace, slow and sluggish
うとうと Half asleep, nodding off
ぐっすり Completely and totally asleep
ぐーたら Not having the willpower to do anything
がくがく Joints, like knees, shaking
ぶるぶる Trembling from cold, fear, or anger
きょろきょろ Turning around looking around restlessly
わいわい Clamorously

Gijougo 擬情語

Last, we have words that describe feelings. These are also used heavily in manga.

Japanese English
くよくよ Worrying about the past or trivial things
しんみり Lonely and quiet, solemn
うきうき Happy, cheerfully lighthearted, and full of hope
わくわく Excited from anticipation, pleasure, or happiness
あたふた Running around in a hurry
あわあわ Losing time or a grasp on your senses
もじもじ Unable to make decisions because of embarrassment or shyness
うっとり Being fascinated by something beautiful, spellbound
ずきずき Throbbing, grinding pain
もやもや Worrying or wondering what to do

Hiragana or Katakana

Onomatopoeia are written using either hiragana or katakana. While there are no definitive rules saying when you should use one or the other, in Jazz Up Your Japanese with Onomatopoeia, the author states that hiragana is used for "soft sounds" and katakana is used for "hard sounds" and emphasis. You'll see lots of back and forth in which one is used the more you read, which is just another reason why learning both hiragana and katakana is really important.

For the purposes of this guide, and consistency, I'll be providing all of the examples in hiragana.

Some onomatopoeia have kanji, and even though you'll probably never see it used, it does exist. Here's what it looks like:

燦燦さんさん brilliant, shining sunlight
昏昏こんこん long, deep sleep
齷齪あくせく anxious, feeling like you don't have enough time
潺潺せんせん the sound of a clear, shallow mountain stream
煌煌こうこう bright and shining \

(Video) Japanese Onomatopoeias from JOJO [Learn Japanese with Anime and Manga]

Sound Representation

Most words in languages are arbitrary. Someone, someday decided that the sun in the sky would be called the "sun." But not every person or every language wanted to call it that, and not everyone thinks "sun" when they look up at that bright thing in the sky (Please don't look directly at it!).

This arbitrary "it's the sun because I said so" stuff is pretty much thrown out the window when it comes to onomatopoeia, and even mimetic words. Gwilym Lockwood wrote a short, but interesting article, arguing that mimetic words have a universal quality to them using the following list:

See if you can guess the meanings of these Japanese ideophones:

nurunuru – dry or slimy?
pikapika – bright or dark?
wakuwaku – excited or bored?
iraira – happy or angry?
guzuguzu – moving quickly or moving slowly

Take a look at the full list and the answers. You got most of them right, didn't you?

So something about these sounds hold meaning for us. Keep this in mind as you read on.

Consonants

Most Japanese syllables start with a consonant. Because the Japanese alphabet is extremely kind, it's (mostly) phonetic. This means that each sound is spelled exactly the way it is pronounced. And every written character is pronounced, unlike English, which has silent letters. Also, thanks to this, there are two neat little symbols called the dakuten and handakuten.

Dakuten 濁点 are two little dots, or lines, also called ten-ten.
Handakuten 半濁点 is the open circle, also called maru.

These symbols change the voicing of the consonants they're added to. Consonants can be voiced or unvoiced. Basically, voiced sounds are made with your vocal cords and unvoiced are made without. Here's what they look like in Japanese:

か > が
ka > ga

さ > ざ
sa > za

た > だ
ta > da

(Video) Do Animals Sound More Realistic in Japanese or English?

は > ば, は > ぱ
ha > ba, ha > pa

Sounds without these symbols are called seion 清音, meaning "pure sounds." Adding dakuten or handakuten make them dakuon 濁音, meaning "impure sounds." This is just the Japanese way of saying that an unvoiced sound is becoming voiced. That's also why the "han" in handakuten means half. Just think of it as being half as pure.

This voicing is very important for understanding onomatopoeia. There are lots of, what I'll call, sets, that represent different sounds based on their voiced and unvoiced counterpart. Let's look:

Japanese English
こんこん knocking
ごんごん  banging
さらさら silky
ざらざら rough
とんとん tapping
どんどん drumming
はらはら fluttering
ばらばら rustling
ぱらぱら clattering

The voiced version is always louder, heavier, and more intense than its unvoiced friend. That's probably what makes them seem "impure." Say these aloud and feel the difference.

Now, when you hear onomatopoeia, you can tell if it's something loud or strong based on what kind of consonant it has. Something using "loud" voiced consonants might be banging, rolling thunder, or strong feelings. Something "half" voiced will be noisy, but not loud, like the pitter patter of rain bouncing off of a window.

Vowels

These are just as important as consonants. Changing a character from か to こ will change the type of sound it's representing, just like adding dakuten and handakuten. Let's take a look:

かんかん clear clanging
きんきん high pitched clanging
こんこん low pitched clanging

For the purpose of this example, these are all representing a clanging sound. Something hitting something else. かんかん is the sound of something hitting metal or stone. きんきん is the sound of a musical triangle. こんこん is the sound of something hitting something hard and echoey. Again, say them aloud. Hit some things too! See if you can tell what vowel would be used to express the sound you're hearing. Here's are some general rules from Jazz Up Your Japanese:

long, slow
little, small, quick
long, slow
something negative (bad)
long, slow

Formation

Though most of these words are repetitive, like the examples above, not all of them follow the same pattern. Some onomatopoeia may even look like "normal" Japanese words to you, especially the mimetic ones that don't represent actual sounds. Here are some examples:

Reduplication

Just as in many other languages, the reduplication of a sound symbolizes repetition in sound or action. In Japanese this is called jougo 畳語じょうご. You've probably seen this in other places in Japanese with the iteration mark 々 in words like: sometimes 時々ときどき, various 色々いろいろ and people kanji 人々ひとびと. In onomatopoeia they usually refer to something that's happening over and over.

Japanese English
ばらばら  heavy rain drops or hail coming down
わさわさ  grass and leaves rustling in the wind
ごぼごぼ  gushing water
だだだだ  something running at full speed
ごろごろ  something rolling loudly or heavily

Ending in っ (+ と)

Although the rules of Japanese state that all sounds must end in a vowel (expect ん) because of the syllabary nature of the language, onomatopoeia are often pronounced with an abrupt stop. This is expressed in written language with a っ and is called a glottal stop. This is what we call a sound made by stopping air in your glottis (it's in your throat). The best way to hear it in English is to say "uh-uh." Some of these will be followed by the particle と in a sentence (but not all of them!). They usually refer to a sound that stopped suddenly or abruptly.

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Japanese English
ごくっ gulp
げっ vomiting or gagging
かっ coughing up something
ぼーっ a flame flaring up suddenly
がばっ suddenly waking up

Ending in り

The onomatopoeia form ending in り conveys a feeling of softness or slowness. It's basically the opposite of a glottal stop. It's something long, or deliberate, not short or abrupt.

Japanese English
ぽっちゃり chubby
のらりのらり wander around aimlessly
じゃくり scooping something like sand
ほっかり warm breath or steam
のそり moving slowly and sluggishly

Ending in ん

Onomatopoeia that end in ん are pronounced with a nasal sound, producing a feeling of "prolonged resonance" or rhythm. If something is echoing or ringing it will usually end in ん. When describing a state of being, not a sound, it usually means something that's continuous.

Japanese English
ごほん a strong cough
こんこん something hitting something else over and over
しん cold deeply penetrating your body
じゃぶん strong bubbling
ぼーん an explosive fire bursting into flames

Long Vowels

Words that end in long vowels refer to a sense of continuation or longness. Something is happening and it's happening for a long time.

Japanese English
ふわ~ a long yawn
ぐーぐー loud snoring
ざーざー heavy, continuous pouring rain
ちゅーちゅー drinking something down little by little
のーのー enjoying yourself without caring about what's around you

Grammar

These words are like sprinkling some delicious spice into your language. They don't just add emphasis and color, they add a sense of native understand to your speech. That is, if you know how to use them.

Onomatopoeia can take quite a few grammatical forms and many of them would sound either repetitive or unnatural in English. But in Japanese the repetitiveness is completely normal. Just think of it the way you think of pronouns. In Japanese it makes sense to say the name of the person you're talking about a lot, but in English it sounds strange. Let's look at some examples:

Adverbs + と

  • 朝の太陽が、おっとりと雪原を照らしていた。
  • The morning sun was gently shining on a snowy field.
  • 雷がごろごろと鳴り始めた。
  • Thunder started rumbling.
  • 波が岩肌に、ざざっと打ち寄せた。
  • The waves crashed into the rocks.
  • 火が風に煽られ、一瞬、ぼっと燃え上がった。
  • The fire was fueled by the wind and momentarily flared up.
  • ぼつぼつと降り始めた雨は、すぐにざーっと勢いを増した。
  • The rain, which had started coming down here and there, suddenly poured down.

Quotation と

  • みんなにアハハと笑われた。
  • Everyone laughed, "Ahaha!"
  • ゴキブリを見て、思わず「ギャー!」叫んだ。
  • I saw a cockroach and reflexively screamed, "Gyaa!"

Adverbs + に

  • シャツがびしょびしょに濡れてしまった。
  • My shirt got drenched.
  • この道、がたがたになってるね。
  • This road is getting bumpy, isn't it?
  • あの日は、久しぶりにべろんべろんに酔っ払ったよ。
  • That day I got completely smashed for the first time in a while.
  • お気に入りのシャツがぼろぼろになってしまった。
  • My favorite shirt is getting worn out.
  • レッドブルを飲んだからぎんぎんに目が冴えてるよ。
  • I'm wide awake because I drank a Red Bull.

Verb + する

  • 汗で下着がじめじめしていて気持ちが悪い。
  • My underwear is soaked in sweat and it feels gross.
  • 知らないうちに、うとうとしていた
  • Before I knew it, I was nodding off.
  • 私の母は、いつもせかせかしていた
  • My mom is always fidgeting.
  • なんだか、喉がいがいがする
  • My throat is a little irritated.
  • 親友が引っ越して、しょんぼりしているのさ。
  • A close friend of mine is moving and I feel miserable.

Verb + やる

  • がんがんやっちまおうぜ。
  • Let's get moving!
  • たまにはこうやってみんなで集まってわいわいやるのもいいよね。
  • It's nice to get together with everyone and be raucous like this sometimes.
  • この問題集なら、さくさくやれちゃいました。
  • These workbook problems have been coming along nicely.
  • 時間がないんだから、ちゃきちゃきやってくれよ!
  • We don't have much time, so let's give it our all!
  • あそこでがやがややってるのが、俺のつれだよ。
  • Those guys crowding around over there are my buddies.

Adjectives + の

  • ほかほかの肉まんが食べたいなあ。
  • I wanna eat steamy manju.
  • こんなにさらさらの砂、初めて見た!
  • This is the first time I've seen powdery sand!
  • 彼女はばりばりのキャリアウーマンだからね。
  • She's a hard working career woman.
  • 自分のぶよぶよのお腹を見ると悲しくなる。
  • I get sad when I look at my flabby stomach.
  • その勇者は、とてもかっこいいきんぴかの剣を持っていました。
  • The hero had a really cool gilded sword.

Copula だ

  • もう西瓜はうんざりだ
  • I'm already sick of watermelon.
  • 今日の気分はるんるんだぜー。
  • Today I'm feeling ecstatic!
  • このまくら、ぐにゃぐにゃだぜ?
  • Is this pillow squishy?
  • 徹夜続きでくたくただ
  • I'm exhausted from being up all night.
  • 赤ちゃんの手はぷくぷくだ
  • The baby's hands are cute and chubby.

Spice Up Your Life!

See, that wasn't so bad! You know just about everything there is to know about Japanese onomatopoeia now. So let's go back to those basic verbs you know and add some flavor to them:

きる To wake up

Japanese English
むくむくと起きる to roll out of bed
むっくり起きる to jump out of bed (suddenly)
のっそり起きる to slowly wake up

る to sleep

Japanese English
ぐうぐう寝る to snore fast asleep
すやすや寝る to sleep soundly and peacefully
うとうと寝る to nod off, to start to fall asleep
すうすう寝る to sleep with normal, even breathing

べる to eat

Japanese English
がつがつ食べる to eat greedily or with burning desire
ぱくぱく食べる to eat with your mouth flapping open and shut
むしゃむしゃ食べる to munch and crunch on something
ぺろぺろ食べる to lick (ice cream)

む to drink

Japanese English
がぶがぶ飲む to guzzle something down quickly
ちびちび飲む to take a small sips, trying to make it last
ぐびぐび飲む repetitive gulping of alcohol
ごくごく飲む to gulp something down

あるく to walk

とぼとぼ歩く to trudge
のろのろ歩く to inch along
すたこら歩く to hurry about
ちょこちょこ歩く to scurry along, with small steps

る to see

Japanese English
じろじろ見る to rudely stare
まじまじ見る to stare directly into someone's face
しばしば見る to blink repeatedly
ちらちら見る to glance out of the corner of your eye repeatedly

く to cry

Japanese English
めそめそ泣く to cry uncontrollably
しくしく泣く to cry gently, weeping secretly
おいおい泣く to cry loudly (an adult crying)
ぐすぐす泣く to cry and sniffle

う to laugh

Japanese English
にこにこ笑う to smile
げらげら笑う to laugh out loud, gaffaw
にんまり笑う to smile with satisfaction
くすくす笑う to giggle, chuckle quietly

Resources

Was this guide just not enough for you? Here are our reviews of some great English language resources:

An Illustrated Dictionary of Japanese Onomatopoeia ExpressionsJazz Up Your Japanese with OnomatopoeiaAnd the ultimate Japanese language onomatopoeia dictionary:

And further reading on sound symbolism in Japanese:

Tofugu's Onomatopeia Dictionary

While researching for this guide I found a serious lack of reliable English language information. I could look up each word I found on trusty Jisho.org, but many of the definitions only supplied a general gloss and usually didn't include many of the mimetic meanings of the words. Japanese language sources were also, surprisingly, few and far between.

That's why I decided to compile a HUGE onomatopoeia dictionary for you all to use. Go crazy, kids!

Weather

Bright and Clear

おっとり Quiet sunlight
かっ・かっか Hot sunlight blazing down
からっ・からり Low and clear, comfortable temperatures
かんかん Strong summer sunlight blazing down
ぎらぎら Strong midsummer sun blazing down
けろり A cloudy sky becoming bright and clear
さんさん(燦燦) Lots of shining sunlight
じりじり The sun burning brightly
すかっ Clear without a single cloud
とっぷり Completely dark

Rain, Snow, and Ice

ごろごろ The sound of thunder rumbling and reverberating
こんこん Snow and hail coming down one by one
ざーざー Large amounts of continuous rain falling
ざーっ・ざっ A light shower coming down for a short time
ざーっ・ざっ A short, violent evening shower
ざざっ Rain or waves violently pounding
しとしと Rain gently falling
じとじと・じめじめ Rain continuously falling and soaking things
しゃりしゃり Walking through snow or sand
ちらほら A small amount of snow scatteringly falling from the sky
どんより Rain will fall any moment now
はらはら Powdered snow that seems quite light
ばらばら Large drops of rain or hail suddenly coming down
ぱらぱら A small amount of rain or hail suddenly coming down

Wind, Blowing

ごーっ A strong wind raging
さーさー Wind blowing tree leaves together
さーっ Wind momentarily blowing
ざーっ Wind violently shaking tree leaves
さやさや The sound of tree leaves in a gentle breeze
さわさわ Plants rustling as the wind blows
すーすー Blowing through a crack to create a draft
すーっ The feeling of a draft or gentle breeze on the body
すかすか Moving through the wind or air
そよそよ A gentle breeze quietly blowing
そよ・そより Wind lightly, quietly blowing
はたはた Cloth fluttering in the wind
ばたばた Cloth strongly flapping in the wind
ぱたぱた Cloth lightly flapping in the wind
ひゅー・ぴゅー The sound of slightly strong wind blowing
びゅー The sound of strong wind blowing over
ひゅーひゅ Strong wind hitting trees and electric lines
びゅーびゅー Strong, continuous typhoon winds
ぴゅーぴゅー Strong, continuous, and cold wintry winds
ひゅっ・びゅっ・ぴゅっ Something cutting and flying in the wind
ひゅるるん Wind sharply whistling through the air
びゅんびゅん・ぴゅんぴゅん Continuous, strong wind blowing
ふー Wind blowing
ぶぉーっ Wind violently blasting or bursting out
ぶんぶん Wind heavily roaring overhead
わさわさ Grass and leaves stirring or rustling

Temperature

Cold Weather and Feeling Cold

じわじわ The cold gradually piercing your body
しん The cold deeply penetrating your body
じんじん Your body going numb with cold
すーすー Wind blowing through a crack when it's chilly
すかすか Feeling chilly from moving air
ぞーっ Cold from goosebumps running up your spine
ぞくぞく Shivering from the cold or a fever
ぞくり Suddenly getting intense shivers
ひやっ・ひやり Cold water or air touching your skin
ひやひや Your skin feeling cold
ひやりひやり Your skin feeling cold over and over
りん Tensing up from the cold
ぎんぎん Feeling incredibly cold
ひんやり Feeling cool
きーん Feeling too cold

Hot and Warm

うらら Warm, spring sunlight
かっ・かっか Growing hot from fire or anger
ぬくぬく・ぬっくり A comfortable, warm place
ほかほか A warm body or food
ぽかぽか Feeling comfortable warmth
ぽかりぽかり Warm from sunlight
ほこっ・ほこほこ Warm and feeling good
ぽっぽっ Growing heat from within your body
ほのぼの Feeling warm inside (your heart or soul)
ほやほや So new that steam is rising off it
ほわっ Soft and wrapped in warmth
ほんわか A warm, comfortable atmosphere
むしむし Too much warmth, unpleasantly hot
むわっ・もわっ Heat spreading out in front of you
むん Suddenly feeling heat
むんむ・むんむん Wrapped in oppressive heat
もわもわ Steam spreading out in front of you

Water and Liquids

Water drops, Dripping, Falling, and Splashing

ちゅっ・ぴゅっ A small amount of water, forcefully shooting through the air
ばしゃっ Water forcefully scattering
ぱしゃっ Water gently scattering
ばちゃっ A huge splash of water
ぱちゃっ A small splash of water
はらはら Tears endlessly falling
びしゃっ Water violently splashing
ぴしゃっ Water sharply splashing
びちゃっ Water violently hitting something with a high sound
ぴちゃっ A small amount of water splashing
ぼしゃっ A momentarily heavy splash
ぽたり・ぽたん・ぽつり・ぽつん・ぽたり・ぽたん Water droplets falling on the surface of something
ぼたぼた Fairly large water droplets falling continuously
ぽたぽた A small amount of water dripping
ぼとぼと Fairly large water droplets heavily falling
ぽとぽと A small amount of water trickling down
ぽろぽろ Tears spilling out over and over

Flowing, Pouring, and Streaming

がばがば A large amount of water streaming forcefully
ごーっ A large amount of water echoing from a ways away
ころころ Water lightly flowing
さーっ・ざーっ A large amount of water pouring out all at once
ざーざー A large amount of water streaming continuously
さらさら A quiet, shallow brook
しゃーしゃー Water lightly flowing continuously
じゃーじゃー Water, usually from a faucet, flowing continuously
しょろしょろ Just a little bit of water flowing
だくだく A large amount of sweat
だぼだぼ Pouring a large amount of water of liquids
たらたら Sweat or blood falling
だらだら Sweat, blood, or oil dripping
ちょろちょろ A thin brook trickling
どーっ A large amount of water flowing violently all at once
どーどー A large amount of water flowing down
とくとく Glugging or gurgling from a small mouth
どくどく Something, like blood, overflowing out
どばどば A large amount of water spurting out all at once
どぶどぶ The sound of water or sake being poured
どぼどぼ A large amount of liquid being poured continuously
とろとろ Something thick flowing

Damp, Oozing, and Running

しっとり Soaked in a moderate amount of moisture
じっとり Uncomfortably sweaty
じとじと Covered in an uncomfortable amount of rain
しとっ・しとり Completely soaked through with a light dampness
じとっ・じとり Unpleasant moisture and humidity
じみじみ Feeling damp
じめじめ Completely soaked in humidity and moisture, sodden and clammy
じゅくじゅく Completely soaked and oozing
じわじわ Moisture slowly spreading
じわっ Liquids soaking and oozing
じんわり Soaking slowly with sweat or tears
べっとり Deeply stained with sweat
べとべと Sticky with sweat or blood

Getting Wet

ぐしょぐしょ・ぐちょぐちょ Clothes getting completely wet
ぐっしょり Clothes getting severely wet
しとしと Getting wet from light rain or fog
ずくずく The uncomfortable feeling of getting wet from rain or water
とっぷり・どっぷり Being completely immersed in bath water or liquids
びしょびしょ・びちょびちょ Horribly soaked by a large amount of water
びしゃびしゃ・びちゃびちゃ Water collecting on the surface
ひたひた Lightly soaking in water
びっしょり Disgustingly drenched in a large amount of sweat
びっちょり Completely drenched in a large amount of water
べちゃべちゃ Getting soft from water, mushy and soggy
べちょべちょ Unpleasant from excess moisture

Rippling, Bubbling, and Sinking

こぽこぽ Water bubbling gently
ごぼごぼ Bubbling loudly
ごぽごぽ Water mixing in with the air
ざざっ Waves violently breaking
ざばっ A large amount of water moving
ざぶっ・ざぶん The sound of jumping into water
じゃぶん・じゃぼん Water violently flying
たぷんたぷん Water being shifted and rippling
たぽたぽ The sound of something slapping against water
ちゃぷちゃぷ Water sloshing lightly
どぶん・どぼん Something heavy falling into water
とぷんとぷん The sound of water sloshing gently
どんぶりこ Something sinking underwater
ひたひた Waves lapping against the shore
ぶくぶく Bubbling
ぷくぷく Small bubbles forming
ぼこぼこ Big bubbles rising, burbling

Fire

Burning

かっか The sun and fire continuously burning hot
ちょろちょろ A small flame continuously burning
ちろちろ A small flame flickering as it burns
とろとろ Simmering for a long time
ぱちぱち Strong popping of a fire
ぱっぱっ Large flames fiercely burning
ぱりぱり Something burned crispy
ぶすぶす・ぷすぷす Sputtering of smokey embers
ぼーっ・ぼっ A flame flaring up for a moment
ぼーぼー Fire burning
ぼーん Fire flaring up explosively
ぼっぼっ A large flame flaring every once in a while
めらめら Suddenly bursting into flames

Earth

Dirt, Sand, and Rocks

がたがた A road that isn't paved
ごつごつ Something jagged or rugged, like bare rock
ごろごろ Something like a boulder tumbling
こんもり The swelling roundness of a mountain
ざーっ Forcefully moving sand
さくさく Stepping on soft dirt or sand
さくっ Sand mixing as you step on it
さくりさくり Walking on soft dirt or sand
ざっく Roughly grabbing something like sand
さらさら Dry sand sifting or falling
じゃりじゃり Pebbles or sand crunching together
じゃりっ Pebbles hitting each other while they fall
ずぶずぶ・ずぼずぼ Sinking into a swamp or a sand
そくそく Stepping on sand as you walk
でこぼこ Uneven ground
べちょっ Smearing mud or paint
ぼこぼこ Lots of hollows or holes

Actions and Conditions

Walking and Running

うろうろ Wandering aimlessly
えっちらおっちら Walking with great difficulty, barely managing to walk
かっぽかっぽ The sound of horse hooves
さっさ・さっさっ Feet moving vigorously
すたこら Fast paced, eager walking
すたこらさっさ Running away without looking back
すたすた Briskly walking without looking around
せかせか Jogging as if you're in a hurry
たー・たたー Lightly taking off into a run
たかたか The high pitched footsteps of a child running
たじたじ Staggering or tripping over your feet
だだーっ Powerfully running through
たたたた Running at full speed
だだだだ Rushing forward
たったかたったか Light running
たったっ Walking quickly with long strides
ちょこちょこ Scurrying along with short steps
てくてく Going a long way, trudging along
てけてけ Walking with the same rhythm
どっしどっし Heavily stomping with your weight
とーん Stamping forcefully with your foot
とことこ The small steps of children
とっとことっとこ・とっとっ The rhythm of quick, small steps
とっと Quickly walking
ととと Trotting, jogging
どたばた Noisily running around
とぼとぼ Stooping as you walk a long way, trudging
のさのさ Like you don't care, haughtily
のしのし Strong, heavy steps, lumbering
のそのそ Hulking and slow, like a slow giant
のっしのっし Walking with huge, clumsy strides, like a giant
のらりのらり Slowly, aimlessly walking
のろのろ・のろりのろり Proceeding at a snail's pace, slow and sluggish
ぱかぱか・ぱっぱか The sound of light horse footsteps, clip clop
ぱたぱた・ばたばた The pitter patter of footsteps
ひょこひょこ Taking a carefree stroll
ふらふら・ぶらぶら Wandering around without any goal or purpose
よたよた And old, or sick person, weak on their feet
よちよち An infant still learning how to walk
よぼよぼ And old person shaking while they walk
よろよろ Someone who looks like they could collapse at any moment
わたわた Restless and unable to calm down

Waking Up and Getting Up

がばっ Suddenly wake up all at once
さっ Taking the initiative, and standing up willingly
しゃっきり Straight backed
しゃん Standing up straight, looking forward
すくっ・すっく Vigorously standing upright
すたっ Getting up lightly
すっ Getting up casually and carefree
すとん Lightly jumping down
ぬーっ Standing up straight, silently, without doing anything
のっそり Slowly, ponderously getting up
ぱっ Quickly standing up in reaction to something
ばらばら A large number of people standing up and moving one after the other
ひょい Lightly getting up
ぴん Jumping up and standing erect
むくっ・むっく・むっくり Suddenly waking up and getting up
むくむく Squirming while getting up

Sleeping and Laying Down

うとうと・うつらうつら Half asleep, nodding off
うとっ Suddenly hit with drowsiness
こっくりこっくり Your body moving from nodding off
くーくー The sound your nose makes when you're fast asleep
ぐーぐー・ぐーすか Snoring while you're fast asleep
ぐっすり Completely and totally asleep
こっくり Completely and totally asleep
こてっ Nodding off with your head suddenly drooping
ことっ Suddenly losing your strength and collapsing
ころっ・ころり Falling asleep from fatigue
ごろっ・ごろり・ごろん Lying down and easily falling asleep
こんこん(昏昏) Laying down and stretching out
すーすー Falling into a long, deep sleep
すやすや Normal, even breathing while asleep
どたん Peaceful breathing while asleep, sleeping soundly
とろっ Feeling tired and heavy
とろとろ Looking sleepy
とろん Dozing, a light doze

Doing Nothing

ぐーたら Not having the willpower to do anything
ごろごろ・ごこりごこり Passing the time doing nothing
ごろんごろん Rolling around idly
のーのー Happily ignoring your surroundings
のんびり To feel at ease, without a job or worries
ぶらぶら Living in laziness and doing nothing
ぶらり Being bored and doing nothing
ぼけっ Living idly and sloppily

Tired

うんざり Disgusted and fed up
がっかり Horribly exhausted, losing energy
くたくた・ぐたぐた Horribly tired and worn out
くたっ・ぐたっ・ぐったり Tired and unable to move
げっそり Horribly exhausted and withering away
げんなり Weakening from fatigue and heat
ずたぼろ Mentally and emotionally exhausted
へとへと Completely exhausted and out of breath
ぼろぼろ Mentally and emotionally worn out
よたよた Staggering and unable to walk straight from exhaustion

Shivering and Shaking

がくがく Joints, like knees, shaking
がたがた Shivering violently from coldness or fear
がちがち Teeth chattering from coldness or fear
ざわざわ Goosebumps from a bad feeling
ぞーっ Chills going up your spine from fear
ぞくぞく Body shaking from cold, fear, or excitement
ぞくっ A sudden chill from cold, fear, or excitement
ぞぞ The feeling of unpleasant coldness
ぞっ Visually shaking for a moment from fear
ひくっ・ぴくっ・ぴくり・ぴくん Body, or part of it, spasming suddenly
びくっ Body suddenly, reflexively shaking or trembling
ひくひく Part of your body twitching or cramping
びくびく・ぴくぴく Part of your body shaking from fear
ぴくりぴくり・ぴくんぴくん Continuously shaking for a period of time
びりっ・びりん Body going numb from sudden stimulation
ぴりっ A sudden shaking movement
びりびり Something like glass resonating from an explosion, rattling
ぶるっ Your whole body suddenly shaking from the cold
ぷるっ Vibrating for a moment
ふるふる・ぷるぷる Moved by light shaking or vibrating
ぶるぶる Trembling from cold, fear, or anger
ぶるり Suddenly shaking and moving
ぶるん Waving or shaking something around, like an arm
ぶるんぶるん Continuously, intensely shaking
わなわな Shaking from cold, fear, or anger

Looking and Glaring

うつらうつら Eyes opening and closing, seeing and not seeing, nodding off
かっ Eyes wide open, glaring
きっ An intense look in your eyes and attitude
きょときょと Looking around restlessly over and over
きょろきょろ Turning around looking around restlessly
ぎょろぎょろ Big eyeballs shining keenly
きょろ Charming eyes opening wide
ぎょろ・ぎょろり Glaring intently at someone
きょろり Quickly surveying your surroundings
ぎらぎら A glint in your eyes / not hiding the lust in your eyes
きろっ The sudden movement of your eyes
ぎろっ・きろり Big eyes glaring
ぎろり Glaring threateningly
ぎんぎん Continuously opening your eyes wide
ぐっ Keenly staring at your focal point
じーっ・じっ Not taking your eyes off your target
しげしげ Staring at something over and over, fixedly
じとっ・じとり Glaring with jealously and resentment
しばしば Blinking repeatedly
しょぼしょぼ Blinking wearily after your eyes were open a long time
しょぼっ Eyes that are open but can't understand what they see
じろじろ Rudely staring at someone over and over
じろっ・じろり Coldly glaring at someone
じろりじろり Rudely sending and obstinate look at someone
ちかちか Strong light irritating your eyes
ちらちら Look out of the corner of your eye over and over
ちらっ・ちらり Glancing out of the corner of your eye for a moment
ちらりちらり Something appearing and disappearing, flickering
ちろっ Sharply glancing sideways
つくづく Gazing intently, unabashedly
とろり・とろん・どろん With eyes dull from drunkenness
どんより Dull eyes, losing life
ぱちり・ぱちぱち・ぱっちり Looking with big, wide eyes
はっきり Seeing the target clearly
ぽつっ・ぽつん Squinting at something small
ぼんやり Only able to see dim outlines
まざまざ Plainly visible before your eyes
まじまじ Staring directly into your face

Eating, Chewing, and Licking

あんぐり Taking big bites with a wide, open mouth
がしがし Chewing something wildly with your teeth
がつがつ Devouring something and giving into your desires
がっぷり Biting something deeply and not letting go
がばがば Continuing to eat food energetically
がぶっ・がぶり Taking a big bite of something
かりかり Lightly chewing on something hard with your teeth
がりがり Trying to munch something hard with your teeth
かりっ・かりり・かりん Biting once into something hard
がりっ・がりり Chewing a mouthful of something hard
くしゃくしゃ・くちゃくちゃ・ぐちゃぐちゃ Eating loudly and vulgarly
ぐちゅぐちゅ Rinsing out your mouth or chewing something
こりこり Biting something hard in your mouth
こりっ Biting into something hard
ごりっ Biting forcefully into something hard
さくっ The light feeling when you bite into something
しこっ Pleasant crunchiness
しゃきしゃき Eating fresh vegetables with lots of texture, like celery
じゅるっ Sipping on mostly liquid food
しょりしょり Refreshing, light crunchiness
じょりじょり Eating something granular and feeling the roughness in your mouth
ずるずる Sipping noodles, or something similar, loudly and vulgarly
つるつる Sipping noodles, or something similar, lightly
ばくっ・ぱくっ A big mouth biting forcefully
ばくばく・ぱくぱく・ばくりばくり・ぱくりぱくり Opening and closing a big mouth repeatedly (usually while eating)
ぱくり・ぱくん・ぱっくん Eating something with a big mouth and swallowing
ばりばり Chewing something hard with your teeth
ぱりぱり Eating something crispy
ぴちゃぴちゃ・ぺちゃぺちゃ Eating while making unpleasant tongue noises
べちゃべちゃ Eating and making vulgar noises
ぺろっ・べろっ Licking quickly
ぺろり・べろり Eating up all the food
べろべろ・ぺろぺろ Running your tongue over something
ぺろぺろ Licking exaggeratedly over and over again
べろん・ぺろん Licking something exaggeratedly once
べろんべろん・ぺろんぺろん Running your tongue over something exaggeratedly, multiple times
ぼりっ Loudly biting something hard
ぼりぼり Chewing something hard with your teeth
ぽりぽり Chewing something hard lightly with your teeth
むぐむぐ Chewing something without opening your mouth
むしゃむしゃ Eating something swiftly
むしゃり Taking one, quick bite
むしゃりむしゃり Eating something quickly, continuously
むにゃむにゃ Muttering with food in your mouth
もぐもぐ Stuffing food in your mouth and chewing over and over
もごもご Mumbling while you eat, chewing your words
もそもそ Eating something dry and unpleasant
もりもり Eating with gusto

Drinking and Getting Drunk

がばがば Continuously drinking alcohol, like beer, a lot
がばっ Drinking a lot at one time with a big mouth
がぶがぶ Drinking a lot quickly
がぷがぷ Drinking quickly and breathing, drink, take a breath, drink, take a breath
がぶっ・がぶり Drinking a lot all at once
がぶりがぶり Drinking a lot over and over again
がぼがぼ Drinking quickly all of a sudden
かぽっ・がぼっ Taking a drink in a good mood
きゅー・きゅっ Drinking down some strong alcohol
くい Lightly drinking something like sake in one gulp
ぐい Gulping down something like sake in one breath
くいくい Continuously gulping down something like sake
ぐいぐい Quickly drinking a lot of something like sake
くー・ぐー・ぐーっ・くくー Drinking something in one gulp
くっ・ぐっ Gulping down something
ぐっぐっ Drinking quickly without stopping for air
ぐでんぐでん Getting black out drunk
ぐたぐた Getting so drunk you can't even move your body
ぐびっ・ぐぶり The gulping noise your throat makes when you drink alcohol
ぐびぐび・ぐびりぐびり Repetitive gulping from drinking alcohol
こくこく Drinking and tasting delicious flavors
ごくごく・ごっくりごっくり・ごぶごぶ Drinking and making gulping sounds with your throat
こくっ・こくり・こくん・こっくん Sipping or swallowing lightly
ごくっ・ごくり・ごくん・ごっくん Sipping or swallowing and making a gulp sound
こくりこくり Sipping or swallowing slowly as if you're savoring the flavors
ごくりごくり Drinking continuously with loud gulp, gulp, gulping sounds
ごくんごくん Drinking quickly with gulp, gulp, gulping sounds
ごっくり Drinking loudly in one breath
じゅるっ Swallowing or sipping spit, soup, or a liquid
ずーずー Swallowing or sipping soup, or a liquid with higer-pitch loud sound, like sucking soba noodles
ずーっ・すすっ・ずずっ Swallowing or sipping soup, or a liquid with loudly, like soba noodles
ずるずる Loudly slurping noodles
ずるっ A snort of mucus or soup
ちびりちびり Slowly sipping alcohol
ちゅーちゅー・ちゅるちゅる Sucking a liquid (with a straw) or noodles slowly
ちゅっ A short slurp of soup or a liquid
ぴちゃぴちゃ Wet licking sound an animal, like a dog, makes
ひっく Hiccup, usually of a drunk person
ぺちゃぺちゃ Making tongue noises while drinking and/or eating
へべれけ Getting super drunk, with slurred thinking and speaking
べろべろ・べろんべろん Getting so drunk you can't move your body normally
ほろっ・ほろり Getting tipsy, or a comfortable amount of drunkness
ぽわん Getting drunk and feeling great, like you're floating
れろれろ Getting tongue tied from alcohol or drugs

Puking and Vomiting

がらがら・がらがらぺっ Vomiting and gargling
げー・げっ Vomiting food and drinks
げーげー・げろげろ Continuously vomiting food and drinks
げろっ Vomiting instantly
ぷっぷっ Violently vomit in your own mouth
ぺっぺっ Forcefully vomit spit and phlegm
むかっ・むかむか Feeling the urge to vomit in your stomach, holding it down

Saying and Speaking

うだうだ Constantly making excuses and complaints
がたがた Complaining a lot
がみがみ A higher status person giving you a lecture or scolding you with strong words or tone
がやがや Many people talking loudly
きっぱり Saying something clearly with a straightforward expression
ぎゃーぎゃー Making complaints loudly and repeatedly
きゃんきゃん・きんきん Shouting, crying, or yelling with a high-pitch voice
ぐちぐち Making complaints to someone or aloud to yourself
ぐずぐず Muttering complaints
くだくだ・ぐだぐだ・くどくど Doing or saying the same thing over and over again incessantly
ぐたぐた Complaining over and over about things, listing them
ぐちゃぐちゃ Talking forever about meaningless things
ごじゃごじゃ・ごたごた・ごちゃごちゃ Telling various excuses or complaints
こそこそ Whispering secretly
ごちょごちょ Saying something into someone's ear
ごにょごにょ Muttering so that others can't hear you
ざっくばらん Explaining your situation frankly
しどろもどろ Making illogical excuses, panicking and making terrible excuses that don't make sense
しんみり Saying something sadly with a quiet, calm tone
ずけずけ Saying something very straight forward
ずばずば・ずばっ・ずばり Saying or pointing out something straight forward, get to the point in a very outspoken manner
すらすら Speaking really fluently, smoothly
たらたら Complaining about something over and over for a really long time
だらだら Talking about or explaining something really unclearly and taking a long time to do it
ちゃらちゃら Chatting and being really flirty
つけつけ・つかつか Not hesitating to say something, saying whatever you think
つべつべ Annoyingly complaining or theorizing at someone
ぬけぬけ Saying or making something up to show off
はきはき Talking or replying in a clear, friendly manner
ばしばし Saying things without holding back or hesitating
ぴーちくぱーちく Loudly talking with a high pitched voice
ぴしゃっ・ぴしゃり Stubbornly taking one side in an argument
ひそひそ Whispering so the people around you can't hear
ぶーぶー Whining and complaining a lot
ふがふが The air moving through your mouth because your false teeth fell out
ぶつくさ・ぶつぶつ Continuously complaining in a low voice
ぶつっ・ぶつり Muttering a single word under your breath
べちゃくちゃ・ぺちゃくちゃ・ぺちゃぺちゃ Continuously chatting about frivolous things
ぺらっ Chatting fluently
ぺらぺら Being able to speak a fluent language fluently
ぼそり・ぽつり Saying a single word in a low voice
ぼそぼそ Speaking with a really low, lifeless voice
ぽんぽん Cheerfully showing someone in what you're saying over and over
むにゃむにゃ Sleep talking, or mumbling
もぐもぐ・もごもご Mumbling, talking without opening your mouth very much
やいのやいの Meddling or pressing someone for information that isn't your business
れろれろ Getting tongue tied from alcohol or drugs
わいわい・わやわや Many people talking loudly

Coughing and Choking

えへん Coughing violently and clearing your throat
おほん Clearing your throat for attention
かーっ Coughing up phlegm into your mouth from your throat
かっ Violently breathing in phlegm or spit
ぐぐっ Food or air caught in your throat
けほけほ Choking slightly
げほげほ・ごほごほ Strong coughing fit
こほこほ・こんこん Light cough
ごほん Coughing strongly once to clear a blocked throat
こほんこほん A light, halting cough
ごほんごほん Strongly coughing many time
ぜーぜー Breathing through phlegm

Noisy

がやがや A crowd of people gathered together talking noisily
きーきー A noisy, shrill voice
きゃーきゃー・ぎゃーぎゃー Yelping out of joy or fear
ぎゃんぎゃん Making a big fuss, bawling
ごたごた Noisy complaining and fussing
ざわざわ A bunch of people causing a commotion
じゃんじゃか Something like a musical instrument making a lot of noise
ちゃんちゃか The playful noise of a banquet or dinner party
てんやわんや A large number of people scrambling over each other in total confusion
どがちゃが Getting chaotic
どさくさ Confusion or a scandal
どさどさ A crowd of people jumbling together one after another
どたどた The sound of people heavily and recklessly moving around
どたばた・どたんばたん Noisily running or stomping around
どやどや The sound of many footsteps going in and out of somewhere
どんちゃか・どんちゃん Boisterous revelry, the sounds of music and enjoyment at a banquet or party
ぱたぱた The sound of busily moving around
やいやい An uproar unable to settle down
わーわー A raised voice crying or screaming
わいわい・わやわや A large group of people making a lot of noise
わっ A large group of people stirring all at once
わっさわっさ A crowd yelling all at once
わんわ Noisiness

Laughing and Smiling

あっはっは・あはは・わはは Cheerfully, loudly laughing
あはあは A rude laugh with your mouth open
いひひ A wily, laugh with your mouth pulled to the sides
うっしっし Chuckling to yourself after you did something well
うはうは Laughing in a loud, rude voice after making a large profit
うひひ A mean laugh of someone who has a scheme or plan
うひょひょ Accidentally letting out a small, happy laugh
うふっ A short, low laugh
うふふ With your mouth only open a little, as if you know something they don't know
えへへ A shy, embarrassed laugh
おほほ・ほほほ With a narrow mouth, acting refined
かかか Laughter that seems happy, but is despicable
がはは A long, hearty, loud laugh
からから A hearty laugh, without a care or worry
きゃー A shrill laugh
きゃっきゃっ The laughter of children playing and having fun
ぎゃはは Laughing vulgarly when you encounter something that is good for you or that you can take advantage of
くーっ・くっ Trying not to laugh, but laughing anyway
くくっ Laughing, but trying to hold back
くすくす Laughing quietly, unable to hold it in, chuckling
くすっ・くすり Letting out just a little bit of a laugh
くすん A light laugh out of your nose
くっく・くっくっ Laughing quietly, unable to hold it in
けけ A weird, high laugh
けたけた High laughter that sounds fake or superficial
げたげた Loud, rude laughter
げたっ Rudely laughing with a loose expression
けっけっ A mocking laugh, making fun of someone
けらけら・けろけろ Innocent, high laughter
げらげら Openly vulgar laughter, guffaw
ころころ Laughing and rolling happily because something is really funny or fun
どっ・どっと Many people laughing together loudly
にーっ Smiling in an eerie way to imply something
にかっ Smiling with your teeth showing
にこっ・にこり・にっこり Smiling happily to show that you're happy
にこにこ Laughing and smiling brightly, showing gratitude
にたっ・にたにた A broad, evil grin, unable to hide your joy
にたりにたり Repeatedly smirking smugly
にっ Smiling lovingly without making a sound
にっこにこ Laughing and smiling with the utmost happiness
にやっ Unintentionally smiling and showing your joy
にやにや・にやり Giving a faint, cold smile
にんまり Smiling with satisfaction because things went your way
はっはっ・ははは Laughing without a worry or care
ひっひっ・ひひひ Shifty laughing of a bad person or villain
ぷー・ふっ・ぷっ Busting out with laughter at something funny
ふっふっ A fearless smile
ふふ A suppressed laugh, without being able to hide your joy
ふふん Laughing through your nose, looking down on someone else
へっへっ・へへへ Laughing meanly, triumphantly
へらへら A frivolous, superficial laugh
ほくほく Laughing or smiling because you gained something, usually money or profit
ほっほっ Laughing loudly as if you're out of breath, like Santa's laugh
わーっ A sudden, loud laugh

Crying

あーん・うわーん A child crying loudly without considering the people around it
あんあん・えんえん A person crying loudly
うえんうえん Spinelessly crying or whining with your mouth shaped like the へ character
うるうる・うるるん Moved to tears
うるっ Unintentionally crying
えーん A child crying because it wants attention
おーおー A person crying loudly from sadness
おいおい An adult crying pitifully
おぎゃーおぎゃー A baby bawling
ぎゃー・ぎゃーぎゃー An obstinate kid shouting
ぐしょぐしょ Lots of tears flowing
ぐすぐす Crying and sniffling
ぐすっ・ぐすり Sniffling, moved to tears
ぐすりぐすり Sniffling and snorting snot
くすん・ぐすん・ぐっすん The sound of your nose sniff when you cry
しくしく Crying gently, or feeling pitty for someone or something
ひーひー Crying out with a pitiful voice
ひっく A crying hiccup, similar to hyperventilation
ひっひっ Sobbing but trying to hold back
べそべそ Crying while grumbling
ほろっ・ほろり・ぽろり To shed a single tear out of sympathy or from being emotionally moved
ぼろぼろ Crying large tears
ぽろぽろ Tears that won't stop falling
ほろりほろり・ぽろりぽろり Tears spilling down your cheeks one at a time
めーめー Crying like a spineless baby
めそめそ Uncontrollably crying with no self respect
よよ A woman feebly bursting into tears
わーわー・わーん・わんわん Bawling without caring about where you are
わっ Suddenly, violently bursting into tears

Angry, Upset, Antisocial

かーっ Getting upset because something didn't go as planned
かっ Blowing up out of shame or anger
かっか・かっかっ・がみがみ Agitated by anger or dissatisfaction
かりかり Quick to take offense, tightly wound
かんかん So outraged that you won't listen to reason
きっ Sudden hardening of your manner or expression
ぞっ Feeling unpleasant
つっけんどん Acting curt or unfriendly
つん・つんつん Facing away disgruntled
つんけん Acting unsociable or crabby
とげとげ A mean attitude, expression, or tone of voice
ぷい Facing away without responding
ぷー Blowing your cheeks out with anger or unhappiness
ぶすっ・ぶすり Blowing your cheeks out with anger or unhappiness, looking sullen
ぷっ・ぶりっ・ぷりぷり Blowing your cheeks out with anger or unhappiness
ぷん Blowing your cheeks out and refusing to speak
ぷんぷん Opening showing your anger or displeasure
ぼさっ Acting unsociable, unfriendly
むーっ Showing your anger or displeasure
むかっ・むかむか Anger suddenly welling up, surge of anger
むしゃむしゃ Losing your calm and getting upset often
むすっ Pouting silently
むっ Being angered by someone's words or actions
むっつり Ignoring social graces and being blunt and curt
むらむら Anger coming up from the bottom of your stomach, anger welling up

Not Feeling Well

かくっ・がくっ Suddenly losing some of your energy
がっかり・がっくり Discouraged by disappointing results
かくん・かっくん A little disappointed because your hopes didn't come true
がびーん Hit with disappointment and shock
ぎゃふん Not being able to talk back at all after being accused of something, unable to argue
ぎゅー Knocked down (emotionally) after being accused of something
くしゃっ Losing motivation and hope
ぐったり Completely exhausted from fatigue or sickness
くよくよ Worrying about the past or trivial things
げっそり Losing weight or getting sick from sickness or anxiety
しおしお Disappointed by your own failures
しゅん・しょぼしょぼ・しょぼっ Not energetic, depressed
しょぼん Depressed, losing energy and willpower
しょんぼり Depressed and feeling lonely
しんみり Lonely and quiet, solemn
すごすご Leaving somewhere depressed, dejected
とぼとぼ Walking depressed, trudging along
とほほ Being miserable and pitiful
へたへた Suddenly losing strength and having to sit down
へなへな Losing strength and having to sit down
よぼよぼ Mentally weak, physically growing old

Delighted

いそいそ Happy and lighthearted
うきうき Happy, cheerfully lighthearted, and full of hope
うしうし Happily and skillfully going about your business
うはうは Full of smiles and happiness
きゃぴきゃぴ Bringing out the happy youthfulness in a bitter woman
ほいほい Happily carefree and without much thought
ほくほく Openly happy and pleased with yourself
らんらん Feeling exhilarated and jumping for joy
るんるん Feeling exhilarated, euphoric, and humming happily
わくわく Your heart fluttering from joy or anticipation

Surprised

あわわ A reflexive sound made when noticing something suddenly
うぎゃー A surprised scream or shriek
がーん Receiving a psychologically intense shock
がびょーん Horribly, exaggeratedly shocked
ぎく・ぎくっ・ぎくり・ぎくん Someone suddenly touched on a secret of yours
ぎっくん Suddenly taken by surprise and off balanced
きゃー・ぎゃー・きゃーきゃー・きゃっ・ぎゃっ Letting out a scream of surprise, fear, or pain
ぎょえー Completely amazing and surprised
ぎょぎょ・ぎょっ Something suddenly opening your eyes
きょとっ・きょとん Understanding the situation with your eyes wide open
ぐっ Receiving a strong blow to your heart
げー・げっ Observing unexpected things
だー Surprised or dumbfounded
どきっ・どきり・どっきり Heart racing from excitement, fear, or anticipation
ぱちくり Blinking rapidly from surprise
はっ Suddenly noticing something and being surprised by it
ひー A cry of excitement, fear, or pain
ぴくっ・びくり Trembling from a momentary fear
ひっ Holding your breath out of shock
ひっく Terribly surprised
びっくら・びっくり Surprised by something sudden or unexpected
ひやっ・ひやり Momentarily feeling like something bad is about to happen

Flustered, Impatient, and Unable to Calm Down

あくせく(齷齪) Feeling like you don't have enough time
あたふた Running around in a hurry
あっぷあっぷ Struggling and gasping for breath, about to drown
あわあわ Losing time or a grasp on your senses
いそいそ Exhilarated and enthusiastic
いらいら Unable to do things at your own pace, rushed and in a hurry
うきうき Excited because of joy or hope, cheerful
うずうず・むずむず Itching to do something, impatient to start something
おたおた Flustered or panicked by something suddenly, shocked speechless
おどおど Hesitating or faltering with nervousness or anger
おろおろ Unable to move from surprise or anxiety
がさがさ Noisy and unable to calm down
ぎゃっ Shouting unintentionally in confusion
きろきろ An expression lacking calmness or stability
じたばた Impatiently squirming
しどもど Confused and incoherent
しどろもどろ The subject and words spoken are unclear, incoherent
じりじり Running out of patience
せかせか Feeling impatient and that you're being hurried
せこせこ・こせこせ Making a big deal out of nothing
そそくさ Feeling like you're in a hurry to finish
そわそわ Fidgeting from anxiety
ちゃかちゃか Unable to steady your movements or actions
どきどき Your heart beating faster from worry or fear
どぎまぎ Flustered that someone sees right through you
どたばた Noisily rushing around doing things
ばたばた Hurrying around getting things done
はらはら Nervous or worried about something, on edge
びくびく Trembling from anxiety or anger
やきもき Unable to calm down from worry or impatience
わくわく Excited from anticipation, pleasure, or happiness
わさわさ Unable to concentrate or calm down

Hesitating and Faltering

いじいじ Unsure of your behavior or actions
うじうじ Unable to be proactive or make a decision
おずおず Faltering or hesitating from anger or nervousness
ぐだぐだ Acting slow out of unwillingness or laziness
くよくよ Restlessness from worries or regrets
くらくら Unsure of what decision to make due to temptation
ぐらぐら Unsure due to weak resolution, indecisiveness
たじたじ Hesitating because someone is coercing you
まごまご Losing your head because you don't know what to do
もじもじ Unable to make decisions because of embarrassment or shyness

Thinking and Feeling

うっとり Being fascinated by something beautiful, spellbound
きゅーん Feeling a tightness or pressure in the your chest from sadness or grief
きゅん A tightening in your chest for a moment from strong feelings
さめざめ Sorrowful, bitter feelings
じーん Slowly becoming impressed, moved, or touched by something
じーっ Thinking deeply and quietly
じん Being so touched by something that you're almost moved to tears
しんみ Feeling pity and a little sad for someone
ぞっ Strongly moved by something and that feeling runs through your body
つくづく Believing something from the bottom of your heart
つらつら Thinking about something for a long time
ぴーん Suddenly thinking of an idea
ぴぴっ・ぴん Strong instincts or intuition
ほろり Feeling sympathy for someone
むくむく A feeling or idea that suddenly came up
もやもや Worrying or wondering what to do

Hurt and Pain

いがいが An itchiness or tickle in your throat
いらいら・ひりひり An irritation in your throat or on your skin from pain or hot food
うずうず Feeling a continuous dull pain
がんがん Pain or noise echoing in your head
きりきり A stomachache with sharp pains
ぎんぎん Head constantly aching badly
ぐさぐさ Receiving a blow to the heart from cold words
ぐさっ・ぐさり The psychological wounds from someone's words
ごろごろ The ache of something getting in your eye
じーん The sensation of pain or cold
しく Stabbing pain from a bug
しくしく Continuous spasms of dull pain
しくりしくり Prickling pain over and over
じん Numb or sleeping limbs
じんじん Continuous pain and numbness from the afflicted area
ずきずき・ずんずん Throbbing, grinding pain
ずきっ・ずきり・ずきん Sudden, violent, traveling and throbbing pain
ずきんずきん Continuous throbbing pain
ちかちか Flashing pain in your eyes
ちくちく A stabbing pain like needles over and over, prickling
ちくっ・ちくり・ちくん A sudden stabbing pain from a needle or a bug
ちりちり A cut or skin that feel like it's burning
どきんどきん・どっきどっき・どっきんどっきん Violent throbbing
びーん Numbness or itchiness spreading through your body
ぴきぴき Twitching and on edge
ひりっ・ぴりっ Feeling a sudden itch, pain, or hot taste
びりびり・ぴりぴり Feeling a continued pain or irritation
ひりり Feeling a pain from something for a moment, tingling, irritation
びりり・ぴりり Numb from a momentary stimulus, tingling, stinging
むずむず・もぞもぞ Feeling itchy like you were bitten by, or have bugs on you

Personality and Disposition

Unconcerned and Composed

あっけらかん Without any hesitation
おっとり So calm that it seems like time is passing slower than normal
おめおめ Without hesitation, calmly
がっちり Shrewdly, being pushy
けりけろ・けろっ・けろり As if nothing happened, nonchalantly
さばさば Without attachment or seriousness
しゃーしゃー Shamelessly not feeling that embarrassing things are actually embarrassing
しらっ・しれっ Acting as if something is not a big deal at all
ずかずか Being nosy, acting and saying things without any hesitation
ずけずけ Saying something that could hurt someone else, blunt
ちゃっかり Acting shrewd but still well liked, cheeky
つけつけ Saying and doing things without reserve, rude
ぬくぬく Doing well on your own, carefree and successful
ぬけぬけ Acting like you didn't do (something negative) and it is obvious to other people, shamelessly
のーのー Without any worries or concerns
のこのこ Showing up without any knowledge or understanding of what is going on
のほほん Carefree, without worries or concerns
のんびり Mentally and physically relaxed
はっきり Showing your feelings very clearly
やいやい Loudly bothering other people for things, pestering people

Energetic

ぎんぎん Full of energy and very mobile
しゃきしゃき Dealing with tasks quickly and efficiently
しゃき・しゃっきり Feeling brisk and lively in both body and mind
しゃん Both your movement and thoughts are logical and stable
しゃんしゃん Energetically going about your daily tasks
すくすく Children growing up without complications
ちゃきちゃき Doing things quickly, cheerfully, and efficiently
ぴかぴか・ぴっかぴか A new life shining with hope and happiness
ぴちぴち Young and healthy, or a fresh, lively fish
ぴんぴん Energetic and lively
ぶいぶい Energetic and powerful
もりもり Bursting with energy and motivation

Physique and Figure

Fat and Robust

ころころ Plump and overweight
ずんぐり Short and overweight
ずんぐりむっくり Getting fat, gaining weight, swelling
だぶだぶ Fat, loose and baggy
でっぷり Getting fat or flabby around your stomach and waist
でぶでぶ Shamefully getting fatter
ぶくんぶくん Getting big and flabby
ぶよぶよ Getting way too fat and soft and flabby
ぽちゃっ A chubby face and body
ぼちゃぼちゃ Getting chubby and cute
ぽちゃぽちゃ Chubby, just a little fat
ぽっちゃり Lovely chubby and cute
ぼってり Heavy and fat
ぽってり Chubby and adorable
ぽてっ So fat it looks like your head is just riding your body
ぼてぼて Having undesirable fat on your body
ぽてぽて Plump like a baby with supple skin
むちっ・むちむち・むっちり Supple skin and plenty of flesh in all the right places
がしっ・がっしり・がっちり A study body or bone structure
ぼんきゅぼん Nice proportions: ぼん big breasts きゅ tight waist ぼん big butt
もりもり Bulging muscles, looking strong

Thin

がりがり So thin that you can see their bones, skin and bones
すらっ・すらり Long, slender, and well proportioned
ひょろっ・ひょろひょろ・ひょろり・ひょろん Lanky, thin and tall
ほっそり Slim and slender figure

Moving and Changing

Advancing and Moving

がーっ Forcefully moving
ががっ Advancing with great force
がくりがくり Suddenly moving and then going back
がくんがくん Drastic, jerking motions
がんがん Pushing forward, without paying any attention to your surroundings
ぐいぐい Pushing forward, as if you're being pulled
ぐんぐん Gradually speeding up while advancing
さくさく Things going forward without delay
さっさっ Moving on willingly, without any hangups
さらさら Things moving forward quickly and smoothly
じゃんじゃん Things moving forward and making progress
じりじり Slowly approaching someone
ずい Entering the inside of a house unreservedly
すいすい Feeling comfortable moving forward without resistance, unhindered
すーっ Quiet things moving forward
ずかずか Rudely entering into someone else's area or space
すっ Moving quickly and quietly
ずっ Things pressing forward even more
すっすっ Things advancing without difficulty
ずっずっ・ずんずん Things strongly pressing forward
すらすら・するする Smoothly advancing without delay
すんなり To calmly advance without resistance
そろそろ Gradually progressing to a certain state
だー Running swiftly, with force
たったっ Flying through the minor details
だっだっ Moving forward, maintaining force
ついつい Advancing against your better judgement
つかつか Striding toward something without hesitation
てきぱき A matter that progresses quickly
どしどし Moving purposefully and proactively
どんどこ Moving something forward without hesitating
とんとん Things continuing to go well for a while
どんどん・ばんばん Forcefully moving forward without hesitating
ほいほい Advancing willingly
ぽちぽち・ぼつぼつ Steadily progressing, gradually
めきめき・めっきり Visably making rapid progress

Falling and Dropping

かたん・かたり Something light and hard falling or dropping
がたん・がたり Something heavy suddenly falling or dropping
がらがら Heavy things falling or collapsing one after another
ことり・ことん Light things falling or collapsing
ごとり・ごとん Heavy things falling or collapsing
すとん Falling straight down
たらたら Liquid rolling down, dripping
ちゃぽん Something falling into water
ちゃぽっ Something falling and hitting water
ちらちら Snow or flowers fluttering as they fall
とーん Something falls and bounces
どかっ A big lump or chunk of something falling all at once
どかどか Something heavy continuously falling
どかり Something heavy falling or hitting
どさっ・どさり・どさん・どたり・どたん A big, heavy thing falling all at once
どさどさ Heavy things falling one after another
どすん A huge, heavy thing falling and crashing
ばさっ・ばさり Something like a vacant body falling
ぱさっ・ぱさり Something like an unrolled paper falling
ばたっ Something heavy forcefully falling
はたり・ぱたり Something light falling
ばっばっ Lots of things forcefully scattering
はらっ Paper or leaves scattering
ぱらっ Rain or leaves thinly falling
はらはら Tears or petals falling one by one
ばらばら Finely falling, falling in pieces
ぱらぱら Rain, hail, or leaves falling sparsely
はらり・ぱらり Something light falling
ばらり Falling while feeling heavy or important
ぼたっ・ぽたっ・ぼたり・ぽたり・ぽとっ A drop of water or a liquid falling
ぼたぼた・ぽとぽと Large drops of liquid rolling or trickling down one by one
ぽたぽた・ぽとぽと Small drops continuously falling
ぼたん・ぽたん Drops of water falling from a high place
ぽちゃっ Something that seems to break when it falls
ぽちゃん Something small falling into liquid
ぽつり A single drop of rain falling
ぽてっ Dropping something carelessly
ぼとり・ぼとん A thing or liquid dropping heavily
ぽとり・ぽとん A thing or drop of water dropping lightly
ぽとりぽとり Falling one by one after a pause
ほろっ・ほろり A single tear spilling over and falling
ぼろっ・ぼろり A thing inadvertently falling
ほろほろ Tears or drops of water flowing
ぼろぼろ Something granular falling in large quantities
ぽろぽろ Tears or grains of rice spilling and falling all over
ほろりほろり Tears, flowers, or leaves continuously falling
ぽろりぽろり Tears or liquids falling in intervals
ぽろん Something falling too quickly

Breaking and Bending

がくり・がっくり Suddenly bending strongly back and forth
かくん・かっくん Suddenly bending back and forth and disconnecting
ぎくしゃく Sharply bending back and forth
ぎくっ・ぎくり Something suddenly bending back and forth
ぎくん Sudden, violent bending back and forth
ぐきり Breaking or spraining a leg, breaking a stick
ばきっ・ばきん Something hard and slim suddenly breaking
ぱきっ・ぱきん Something thin breaking
ばきばき Something dry forcefully breaking
ぱきぱき Thin things breaking one after another
ぱしぱし Something hard and slim bending back and forth
ぱちり Something hard breaking
びしっ・びしり Something small and thin folding or breaking
ぴしっ A small break or crack
ぼきっ・ぼきり A small cylindrical thing breaking
ぽきっ・ぽきり A hard, light, cylindrical thing breaking
ぼきぼき Hard cylindrical things breaking over and over
ぽきぽき Light cylindrical things breaking over and over
ぼきん A hard cylindrical thing completely breaking
ぽきん A light cylindrical thing completely breaking
ぼくっ Strong hitting or breaking
ぽちぽち Dead branches or twigs breaking one after another
ぽっきり Snapping cleanly

Shaking and Swaying

うつらうつら Swaying slowly
がたがた Something heavy swaying unstably
がくん A sudden, violent shake
ぐずり A heavy, shaking movement
くらくら Shaking unstably from dizziness
ぐらぐら Huge, irregular, continuous shaking
くらっ・くらり A sudden, big shake
ぐらっ・ぐらり A sudden, huge shake for just a moment
くらりくらり Repeatedly shaking in a big way
ぐらりぐらり Huge, slow shaking movements
ぐりぐり Rubbing your elbow into someone's shoulders
ごとごと The even swaying of a train car
じわじわ Swaying in small degrees
たぽたぽ Liquid sloshing in a container
たぷたぷ Something big swaying
だらりだらり Something long swaying loosely
ちょろちょろ Shaking little by little, trembling
とぷんとぷん Water in a container swaying
びろびろ Flicking cloth or your tongue
ふよふよ Something light quietly swaying
ふらふら Shaking from loss of your body's equilibrium
ぶらぶら Something hanging and swaying, dangling
ぷらぷら Something light swaying in the wind
ふらりふらり Slowly swaying in a big way
ぶらりぶらり Heavily, continuously slowly swaying
ぷらりぷらり Lightly, continuously, slowly swaying
ぶらん Heavily hanging down and dangling
ぶらんぶらん Dangling, or swinging legs back and forth
ぶるぶる・ぶるる・ぶるん Vibrating and shaking
ぷるる・ぷるん Vibrating a little
ぷるんぷるん Trembling slightly
へらへら Fluttering
ぺらぺら Flipping something thin, usually pages
ぽよぽよ Shaking flexibly
ゆさゆさ Something large swaying
ゆさり Something large swaying
ゆさりゆさり Something large swaying over and over
ゆっさゆっさ Something big and heavy swaying
ゆらっ One, huge sway or shaking movement
ゆらゆら Shaking over and over
ゆらり Shaking lightly and slowly, once
ゆらりゆらり Loosely swaying over and over
よろりよろり Legs swinging while crossed

Cutting

ざくざく Chopping the stalks off of vegetables
さくっ・さくり・さっくり Cutting food with a sharp knife
ざくっ・ざくり・ざっくり Deeply plunging a blade into something
ざぐり・ざっく Hollowing something out by cutting into it
じょきじょき Cutting through thick cloth with scissors
じょきり Cutting cloth once with scissors
すかすか Cutting cleanly with a sharp blade
ずきずき Forcefully cutting something
ずたずた Something that's been cut many times, making it look worn or ragged
すっぱり・すぱっ・すぱり Completely cut off with a sharp blade
すとん Easily cut down
ずばずば Relentlessly cutting with a blade
ずばり Cutting through something at once
ずばりずばり Viciously cutting many times
ちょきちょき Cutting paper or plants with scissors
ちょきん・ちょっきり Completely cutting something off with scissors
ばさり・ばっさり Exaggeratedly cutting something off with a blade
ばっさばっさ Cutting people down one by one with a sword
ばらり Cutting a thread, group, or joint
ぴちっ Suddenly splitting open from being cut
ぷすり Cutting something like a thread or from a group
びちっ Suddenly, completely cut off
ぷちっ Suddenly, easily cutting something off
ぶちぶち Easily cutting something like soba
ぷっつ Something suddenly coming apart of disconnecting
ぷつっ Belt, rope, correspondence or suddenly being cut
ふっつり Severing ties with something or someone, once and for all
ぷっつり Completely cutting yourself from a group or a relationship
ぶっつん Violently severing ties
ぷっつん Being cut apart by something sharp
ぶつぶつ Cutting something into small pieces
ぷつぷつ Things getting torn to shreds
ぶつり・ぶつん Suddenly, completely cutting
ぷつり・ぷつん Speech or correspondence suddenly being cut off
ぽっきり Cleanly cut, or interrupted
ぽつぽつ Cut into small pieces or interrupted
ぽつり Suddenly cut down the middle

Ripping and Tearing

ずたずた Tearing to pieces over and over
ばりっ Something hard breaking or tearing
ぱりっ Something thin breaking or tearing
ぱりぱり Strong ripping and tearing
ぱりぱり Cloth or paper forcefully being torn
びっ・ぴっ・びびっ Forcefully tearing or peeling
びりっ・ぴりっ Forcefully tearing cloth or paper
びりびり・ぴりぴり Continuously splitting cloth or paper
べりっ Tearing and peeling at once
ぺりっ Forcefully tearing something thin
べりべり Ripping something thick over and over
ぺりぺり Ripping something thin over and over
ぼろぼろ Little tears in cloth
めりっ・めりめり Something brittle ripping, tearing, or breaking

Sticking

ちょこん・ちょん Small things sticking together
ぴたっ・ぴたり・ぴったり・ぴっちり Completely stuck together with no gaps
ぴたぴた Sticking on after another
びたり On one side
ぴたん・ぴたんぴたん Sticking a stamp to something by pressing it down
べたっ Glued and sticking
ぺたっ・ぺたん Sticking completely to a flat surface
べたり Clinging together in a lump
ぺたり Sticking from being pressed down
べたん Sticking firmly
ぺちょっ Lightly pasting and sticking
ぺったり Lightly sticking to one surface
ぺったんぺったん Sticking and separating
べっとり Sticking something to one side
ぺっとり Sticking something mucousy to one side

Piercing and Stabbing

ぐさぐさ Deeply stabbing with a blade over and over
ぐさっ・ぐさり Stabbing deeply once with a blade
ずばっ Being pierced by an arrow or a spear
ずばりずばり Sharply stabbing in your vitals or your core
ずぶずぶ Something soft being pierced
ずぶっ・ずぶり Being stabbed at the base with a blade
ちくちく・ちくりちくり Repeatedly stabbed with something like needles
ちくっ・ちくり・ちくん Stabbed once with something like a needle
つん Lightly poked once
つんつん Lightly poked over and over
ぶすっ・ぷすっ・ぶすり・ぷすり Stabbing something soft
ぶすぶす・ぷすぷす Stabbing over and over
ぶすりぶすり Continuously stabbing with a blade
ぶつっ Sudden, forceful stabbing
ぶっつり A blade forcefully stabbing
ぶつぶつ Making a hole using something sharp over and over
ぷつぷつ Making lots of hole with something sharp
ぶつり・ぷつり Stabbing with something sharp or tapered

Bending, Folding, and Crumpling

うねうね While bending up, down, and side to side
かくんかくん Repeatedly, lightly folding back and forth
かっくり Suddenly lightly bending something
がっくり Suddenly strongly bending something
ぎくぎく Bending awkwardly and jerkily
くい Suddenly bending something
くいくい Lightly bending two or three times
くにゃ・ぐにゃ・くにゃり・ぐにゃり Part of something suddenly bending
くにゃくにゃ・ぐにゃぐにゃ Soft and freely bending
くねくね Bending back and forth like it's shaking
ぐんにゃり Bending or twisting easily
ジグザグ Bending in the shape of a Z, literally "zigzag" in English
しゃなりしゃなり Your body moving flexibly
しなしな・しなっ Bending and warping
しんなり Something soft folding
なよなよ Weakly bending, delicate
へこへこ Weakly bending easily, pliable

To Be Continued…

(Video) ASMR Ear to Ear Whispering [Japanese Onomatopoeia]

(This guide is constantly being updated. Make sure you check back for more!)

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